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Photograph of Mother and Child
Title of Women Development, Child Welfare and Disabled Welfare Department
 You are here: Home >  Nutrition and Health status
   

1.Overview
   Among the nutrition and health outcomes, the most important is Infant Mortality Rate (IMR). It reflects the health status, socio-economic development and the quality of life of a Country/State/Region. In this respect Andhra Pradesh has still much to achieve. The IMR has reduced from 63 (per 1000 live birth) (SRS-1997) to 41 (SRS-2013) as against the All India decline from 71 (SRS-1997) to 42 (SRS-2013). Moreover, the IMR of the State is much higher than the IMR of Karnataka (32), Tamil Nadu (21), Kerala (12) as per SRS-2013. On the nutrition front, the State has therefore introduced initiatives of “Anna Amrutha Hastham” (AAH) to reduce incidence of Low Birth Weight; “Special care and Supervised feeding” for Severely Underweight (SUW)/ Severe Acute malnutrition (SAM) / Moderate Acute Malnutrition (MAM) children under 5 years; “Maarpu” for making concerted efforts for convergence with allied departments and SHGs and community, apart from making efforts to improve the service delivery
   Another important indicator that reflects health status in general and women in particular is Maternal Mortality Ratio (MMR). The performance of the State in reducing MMR has been commendable. The MMR declined from 220 (per 1 lakh live births) (SRS-1997) to 110 (SRS-2013) mainly due to focus on safe motherhood and institutional deliveries. Nevertheless the MMR is still higher than that of Tamil Nadu (90) and Kerala (66) as per SRS-2013. With regard to nutrition, efforts need to be made to reduce anaemia among pregnant women, improve compliance of pregnant women for consumption of IFA tablets and increase the age at marriage
   Important aspects critical for the safe motherhood are Ante Natal Care (ANC), safe delivery and post-natal care for the mother. Most (95.9%) of the mothers in Andhra Pradesh had received at least one ANC as per DLHS-3 (2007-08). However, the quality of antenatal care in terms of timing of first visit and number of visits are more important. In this respect as per DLHS-3 (2007-08) 67.52% of mothers in the State had their first ANC visit within the first three months of their pregnancy (first trimester) and 89.4% of the mothers had three or more ANC check-ups/visits in the State. With respect to safe delivery, about 71.8% of deliveries in the State as per DLHS-3 (2007-08) are registered as Institutional Deliveries - i.e. deliveries in any health facility which is equipped with handling of the delivery. However, present figures of the Department of Health and Family Welfare, reveal that more than 95% of deliveries are registered as Institutional deliveries
   Low Birth Weight is a matter of concern since 90% of deaths occur among infants with birth weight below 2500 g and hence the maternal nutritional status is the most decisive factor in preventing Low Birth Weight babies. The prevalence of Low Birth Weight children as per NFHS-3 (2005-06) in Andhra Pradesh is 19.4% which is the highest among the other southern States viz. Karnataka (18.7), Tamilnadu (17.2) and Kerala (16.1)
   About one-third of children under three years of age in AP were identified as under-nourished as per NFHS-3 (2005-06). In particular, 29.8% children are Underweight, 38.4% children are Stunted and 14.9% children are classified as Wasted. The State had witnessed only a marginal reduction in the level of underweight between 1998-99 (NFHS-2) and 2005-06 (NFHS-3) by 4.4 points. About three-fourth of children in the State are found to be anaemic. As per NFHS-3, 79.6% of the children below 3 years in the State are anaemic which is slightly higher than the National average
   Regarding feeding practices, as per DLHS-3, 47.8% of the total children below 3 years were breastfed within 1 hour of birth, while 43.9% of the total children 0-5 months were exclusively breastfed and 55% of the children 6-9 months received complementary feeding (solid or semi-solid food and breast milk)
   The nutritional status among the women in the State shows that 30.8% of them have BMI below normal. Between 1998-99 (NFHS-2) and 2005-06 (NFHS-3), the decline in the percentage of women who are having BMI below normal is by 6.6 points only
   Anaemia, a leading cause for maternal mortality and low birth weight, is a wide spread public health problem affecting infants, children, adolescent girls and women of reproductive age. In Andhra Pradesh, the increasing incidence of anaemia among women is an alarming concern wherein nearly half of the women in the reproductive age group (15-49) were anaemic in 1998-99 and it increased to two-third in 2005-06. In percentages, the prevalence of anaemia increased from 49.8% (NFHS-2) to 62.9% (NFHS-3). This is alarming and also relatively high when compared to other southern States
2.Health & Nutrition status
Health and Nutrition IndicatorsAndhra PradeshIndia
Nutritional status-Children < 3 Years (%) *
Underweight29.840.4
Stunted38.444.9
Wasted14.922.9
Nutritional status-Children < 5 Years (%) *
Underweight32.542.5
Stunted42.748.0
Wasted12.219.8
SAM3.56.4
Severe Under Weight9.915.8
Child Feeding Practices (%) **
Children Under 3 years breastfed within one hour of birth47.840.5
Children age 0-5 months exclusively breastfed 43.946.8
Children aged 6-35 month exclusively breastfed-six months32.325.5
Children age 6-9 months-solid/semi-solid food & breast milk55.057.1
Antenatal Care (%) **
Mothers who had taken Antenatal care95.975.2
Mothers who had visited within the first three months of their pregnancy67.345.0
Mothers who had three or more ANC89.449.8
Mothers who had full antenatal check-up40.618.8
Mothers who consumed 100 IFA tablets45.846.6
Maternity Care & Child Health (%)
Institutional delivery **71.847.0
Children with diarrhoea in the last 2 weeks received ORS **43.334.0
Low birth weight *19.421.5
Vitamin A supplementation of children age 12-35 months *28.724.9
Children 12-23 months fully immunized **67.154.0
Children 12-23 months measles vaccine PP **88.670.0
Households with iodine content of salt (%) *
Adequate (15 + ppm)31.051.1
None (0 ppm)40.023.9
Anaemia among Children & Women (%) *
Children age 6-35 months79.678.9
Children age 6-59 months70.869.5
Children age 6-59 months –Severe3.62.9
Women age 15-4962.756.2
Pregnant women age 15-4958.257.9
Other Indicators (%)
Women married before 18 years *54.847.4
Maternal Mortality Ratio (MMR) ***110178
Neonatal mortality ***2729
Infant Mortality rate (IMR) ***4142
Under five mortality *** 4352
* NFHS-III (India)(AP),** DLHS-III (India)(AP), *** SRS (2013)